How to Conduct Research(1)

On Wednesday, February 12, I took the first class of the course titled “Research in Language and Literature” instructed by Dr. Gina Roach. The main content of the class was to discuss “methods” and “process”, two important vocabularies ineluctably and repeatedly referred to.



Methods of research are organized into two main categories, qualitative and quantitative, including observation, questionnaires, interviews as well as case study.


Step 1   to carry out research is to formulate a question or a problem, which comes into being from gap in literature review.

Step 2   to put forward and rank hypotheses. Generally speaking, “why” and “how” are the most important, and “who”, “when” as well as “where” are the least important.

Step 3   to design the research, in which, methods mentioned above turn into process. It is efficient for a researcher to adopt mixed methods to conduct research, for example, to combine a questionnaire (close questions, quantitative) with an interview (mostly open questions, qualitative). In terms of interview, I have also learned a new concept, “focus group”. According to the definition given by Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, it refers to “a small group of people whose response to something (as a new product or a politician’s image) is studied to determine the response that can be expected from a larger population.”

What are the following steps?



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